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Edmunds (1181), Bristol (before 1183) and Winchester (1192). The Jews were taxed at a much higher rate than the rest of England to finance this Crusade.

Even though Jews comprised less that 0.25% of the English population, they provided 8% of the total income of the royal treasury.

They generally lived in segregated areas by themselves.

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Serving as special representatives of the king, these Jews worked as moneylenders and coin dealers.

Over the course of a generation, Jews established communities in London, York, Bristol, Canterbury and other major cities.

Despite the Jews financial contribution, the pro-Christian ideology of the Crusade resulted in rioting in England and some Jewish businesses in London were burned.

One of the most notorious riots led to the massacre of the Jews of York. They felt that they could use York castle for protection and felt secure among York’s elite residents, who used enjoyed Jewish financial services.

Another influential English figure was Henry I (1100-1135) who granted the Jews a charter of liberties.

Jews still faced persecution and were not fully protected by the Crown.

Once Jews returned in the 16 century, however, they became more and more integrated into society.

England was, for a time, one of the most religiously tolerant countries in Europe.

The situation worsened in July 1189 when King Henry II, a protector of the Jews, died.

Richard I was crowned his heir and he refused to grant Jewish representative admission to Westminster Abbey, when they came to offer him gifts.

Led by Richard Malebys, a noble indebted to the Jews, the mob besieged the castle.

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