Chatting sites with dirty men without registration - Ink carbon dating
It is made into a liquid for writing by grinding the cake and suspending the particles in a water-glue medium. Liquid carbon inks are also commercially available.
In the liquid carbon inks shellac and borax are used in place of animal glue and a wetting agent is added to aid in the mixing of the shellac and carbon.
Chemical and physical analysis of inks on questioned documents provides valuable information regarding their authenticity.
Red, green, yellow and other colored chelated dyes are now used for various colored ballpoint inks.
Pressurized ballpoint inks were developed about 1968.
Relative age comparison tests performed on inks of the same formula and written on the same type of paper with the same storage conditions (performed by measuring changing solubility properties of inks) can estimate how long inks have been written on paper.
This is done by: (1) comparing the rates and extents of extraction of questioned and known dated inks in organic solvents by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) densitometry; (2) comparing changes in dye concentrations by TLC and TLC densitometry; and (3) comparing the volatile ink components by gas chro-matography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).
The composition is basically the same, but this ink does not become fluid until disturbed by the rotation of the ball point in the socket.
Cartridges containing this ink are under the pressure of nitrogen or some other inert gas.
The dyes in ballpoint inks can consist of up to 50% of the total formulation.
Several other ingredients are usually added to the ink to impart specific characteristics.
This article describes state of the art procedures for the chemical and physical comparison, identification and dating of inks on questioned documents.
Knowledge of the composition of inks is necessary to understand the reasons for the various methods used to analyze inks.
In 1946, several million Reynolds ballpoint pens reached the market in the United States.Tags: Adult Dating, affair dating, sex dating